Acaba de salir ayer la nueva noticia y positiva del farmaco AM-101 para el acufeno-tinnitus.
les dejo enlace directo y la traduccion.
PD:Lo que me deja un poco pensativo,es eso de hacer los ensayos con personas con acufenos de menos de 3 meses de evolucion.¿Significaria eso que si el farmaco se cormecializa,no valdria para las millones de personas que llevan años con sus acufenos?
17 de octubre 2011
Auris médical informa de los resultados positivos de fase IIb con AM-101 para el tratamiento del tinnitus oído interno aguda
Auris Médico anunció hoy los resultados positivos de un ensayo clínico de fase IIb con AM-101, su fármaco experimental para el tratamiento del tinnitus intratimpánica aguda del oído interno.
El estudio demostró que el tratamiento fue bien tolerado y demostró un efecto estadísticamente significativo.
El estudio doble ciego, aleatorizado, controlado con placebo, paralelo a dosis estudio de fase IIb con AM-101 se con-canalizado en Alemania, Bélgica, Polonia y los Países Bajos, participaron cerca de 30 sitios.
Un total de 248 pacientes que sufren de persistente aguda del oído interno tinnitus fueron aleatorizados a recibir 3 inyecciones intratimpánica de cualquiera de AM-101 a 0,27 o 0,81 mg / ml o placebo durante 3 días consecutivos.
El tinnitus tenía que ser desencadenado por un traumatismo acústico agudo, los medios de comunicación repentina sordera u otitis y no ser mayores de 3 meses.
El ensayo clínico evaluó la tolerancia a la seguridad y locales de AM-101 y los diversos resultados de eficacia.
Los participantes del estudio fueron controlados durante 90 días.
Los resultados preliminares del estudio de fase IIb muestran que el tratamiento local con AM-101 fue bien tolerado, y en particular, que no tuvo un impacto negativo en la audiencia.
Además, el estudio demostró una mejoría dosis-dependiente en varias medidas de tinnitus deterioro, discapacidad y minusvalía.
Los pacientes que sufren de tinnitus aguda con origen establecidas coclear que recibieron AM-101 de 0,81 mg / ml mostraron una reducción estadísticamente significativa en el volumen tinnitus, el impacto del sueño y el THI-12 puntuación del cuestionario (p <0,05 o <0.01).
Para más información sobre el ensayo clínico y los resultados detallados se publicarán en una revista científica.
"Estamos muy satisfechos con los resultados positivos de este importante ensayo clínico con AM-101", declaró Thomas Meyer, fundador Auris Médico y Director General.
"El estudio confirmó la excelente perfil de seguridad del tratamiento y una prueba de concepto para establecer la eficacia en los seres humanos." Agregó que la conclusión exitosa del estudio representa un gran paso adelante en el desarrollo de un tratamiento para el tinnitus oído interno, un área de gran necesidad médica no cubierta.
Auris médica es planificar ahora para discutir los resultados del estudio de fase IIb con las agencias reguladoras y de preparar los pasos siguientes para el desarrollo de AM-101.
Auris Medical was founded in April 2003 in Switzerland.
The company is headquartered in Basel, in the heart of the "Biovalley".
Auris Medical is also working with a network of specialised partners, including some of the world's leading scientists in the area of inner ear disorders.
The company's name derives from Auris, the Latin word for "ear".
Board of Directors and Management
Thomas Meyer - Chairman and Managing Director
Thomas Meyer founded Auris Medical in April 2003, dedicating a substantial share of his personal wealth to this exciting venture.
Before, he had been CEO of Disetronic Group, a leading Swiss supplier of precision infusion and injection systems with approximately 1200 employees. He had been working in various functions for the rapidly growing company since 1988, becoming member of the Board of Directors in 1996, Deputy CEO in 1999 and CEO in early 2000. Prior to joining Disetronic as a member of the Group Management, he had been advising several Swiss companies in the areas of strategy, marketing, and corporate finance.
Thomas Meyer served on the Board of Directors of several other companies in various industries. He holds a PhD in business administration.
Wolfgang Arnold, MD, PhD, is professor emeritus in otolaryngology and head and neck surgery, and an internationally renowned expert in the field of inner ear disorders.
He studied medicine at the University of Munich (Germany), specialized thereafter in otorhinolaryngology in Frankfort, and obtained there his PhD in 1973.
He then worked for 4 years as associate professor at the ENT clinic of the University of Frankfort and for another 4 years in this function at the ENT clinic of the University of Düsseldorf.
In 1981, Wolfgang Arnold was appointed Director of the ENT Clinic of the Kantonsspital Lucerne (Switzerland), and in 1987 additionally professor at the University of Basle.
In 1992 he became Director of the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery of the Technical University of Munich, Germany (“Klinikum rechts der Isar”), a function he held until his retirement in 2007.
Beside his professional activities, Wolfgang Arnold has also been active as author or editor of numerous scientific articles and books, invited speaker at congresses, and has been a member or honorary member of various medical and scientific associations.
Oliver Kubli - Life science asset manager
He is Senior Portfolio Manager for the ZKB Pharma Vision Fund, Adamant Global Generika Fund and Adamant Healthcare Trends Fund. Prior to joining Adamant in 2008, Oliver Kubli held various management positions at Zürcher Kantonalbank (ZKB), Switzerland’s third largest bank.
At ZKB, he was Senior Portfolio Manager for several life science funds with investments of more than CHF 1 billion and responsible for the global health care sector within the bank’s Asset Management Division.
Oliver Kubli started his career in the financial sector in the ‘90s as financial analyst and portfolio manager with UBS and Swiss Re. He is a chartered financial analyst (CFA).
Alain Munoz, MD, PhD, is an entrepreneur and consultant in the healthcare industry. He started his professional career as a cardiologist and anaesthesiologist at the university hospital of Montpellier, France.
In 1983 he switched to the pharmaceutical industry to become head of the cardiovascular department at Sanofi Research.
Two years later, he was appointed Project Leader Cardiovascular and Anti-Thrombotic Products, followed in 1987 by his promotion to Vice President International Development.
In 1990, Alain Munoz moved to privately held Groupe Fournier to become Vice President of Research & Development.
In 1997, he was appointed Senior Vice President of the Pharmaceutical Division. In 2000, he left Fournier to launch his own companies, Amistad Pharma for proprietary drug development, and Science & Business Development for consulting services. Under Alain Munoz' leadership, numerous world-wide leading drugs were developed and approved for marketing (e.g. Lipantyl®, Plavix®) and major licensing deals concluded.
He served for several years on the scientific committee of the French Drug Agency, and is a member of the board of Directors of several biotechnology companies. In addition, Alain Munoz is an adviser to institutional investors; as such, he represents AGF Private Equity on Auris Medical's Board of Directors.
Collaborations with leading partners in the fields of fundamental and applied research, preclinical and clinical development have always been an important part of Auris Medical's strategy.
We at Auris Medical are focusing primarily on project management.
Since 2003, Auris Medical has been collaborating closely with the Swiss biotechnology company Xigen.
This partner is focusing on research and development of novel intracellular peptide therapeutics. Auris Medical and Xigen have concluded an exclusive license and collaboration agreement for applications in the area of ear disorders.
Charles Darwin, Barbra Streisand, Martin Luther, Phil Collins, Beethoven, Ronald Reagan, Cher - all these famous people are known to have suffered or to be suffering from severe hearing loss and / or tinnitus. Vincent van Gogh was also one of them - he supposedly tried to get rid of his tinnitus by cutting off his right ear, as evidenced by his famous selfportrait.
Yet there are not just a few celebrities suffering from inner ear disorders: Joe, Maria, Philippe, Rajiv, Anna, Diego, Mats, Katrin, Chen and many millions of other people around the world are trying to cope with them in their daily lifes - without any truly effective and safe treatment being available.
We at Auris Medical are dedicated to developing novel pharmaceutical therapies (we call them cochlear therapies) to protect hearing and to silence tinnitus.
It is our ambition to provide therapies to prevent or treat important types of hearing loss or of tinnitus in a truly effective and safe way, based on sound science and careful clinical research.
Auris Medical wants to be the leading pioneer in the emerging and exciting field of cochlear therapies.
We have currently two projects under development, AM-101 for the treatment of tinnitus, and AM-111 for the treatment of acute sensorineural hearing loss, as well as several research projects under way.
Inner ear disorders
Hearing loss is either due to insufficient sound conduction from the outer to the inner ear ("conductive hearing loss"), or - much more frequently - to damage to the hair cells and neurons in the cochlea or to the auditory nerve ("sensorineural hearing loss").
The most important causes for sensorineural hearing loss are ageing, acoustic overstimulation by excessive noise or exposure to ototoxic drugs and substances (e.g. certain chemotherapy drugs or antibiotics).
Hearing loss is by far the most prevalent inner ear disorder - according to some estimates, it affects 10% of the population. It is most prevalent among the elderly, with about 30% of people 65 years or older being affected.
However, the incidence is rising rapidly among younger people, mostly due to frequent exposure to excessive noise. At the age of 85 years or older, almost everyone is to some extent affected.
In some cases, the sensorineural hearing loss is acute - e.g. after exposure to loud noise - and may disappear again after a while.
People affected by it may experience a ringing in the ears, and sounds may become muffled for some time.
In most cases however, the hearing loss sets in slowly and progresses insidiously, becoming apparent only after a while.
Sounds may become distorted or muffled, and it may be difficult for the affected person to understand speech especially in noisy situations.
This is due to the irreversible loss of either hair cells or neurons in the cochlea.
At the time of birth, every human being with full auditory capabilities disposes of approximately 3,500 inner hair cells, 13,000 outer hair cells and 30,000 neurons - this number can only decrease in the course of life!
All projects of Auris Medical are focused on the cochlea - which is emphasized by the stylized "medical green" cochlea and the term "cochlear therapies" in the company's logo.
The cochlea is a snail shaped structure ("kokhlias" is the Greek word for snail) that is the sensory organ of hearing.
Together with the adjacent vestibular system, which maintains the body's balance and equilibrium, it forms the inner ear.
The cochlea is a tiny (about the size of a fingernail), yet very powerful organ containing an intricate system of membranes, fluids, specialized sensory cells (hair cells) and neurons.
It converts sounds in a highly fascinating process from mechanical vibrations into electrical signals. These signals code the sound's characteristics and are transmitted to the brain by the auditory nerve.
The idea behind the concept of cochlear therapies is rather simple: to obtain maximum efficacy and avoid unwanted side effects on other parts of the body, pharmaceuticals are used that work specifically on the inner ear disorder and are administered locally, i.e. directly to the cochlea, the site of action.
Local drug delivery is important, as the cochlea - like the brain - is protected by a biological barrier, rendering systemic administration of drugs without severe side effects almost impossible.
Turning the concept of cochlear therapies into therapeutic products represents a major scientific and technical challenge.
Auris Medical has taken up this challenge and aims to make cochlear therapies a reality - to improve the health and quality of life of many people around the world.
October 17, 2011 – Auris Medical reporting positive results from phase IIb trial with AM-101 for the treatment of acute inner ear tinnitus
March 4, 2011 – AM-111 protects against hearing loss from cochlear implant electrode insertion trauma
February 28, 2011 – Auris Medical starting enrolment in first US clinical trial with AM-101
February 3, 2011 – Auris Medical completes enrolment in phase IIb trial with AM-101 for the treatment of inner ear tinnitus
January 27, 2011 – Phase I/II clinical trial with AM-101 showing good safety in treatment of acute inner ear tinnitus
January 17, 2011 – Auris Medical starting enrolment in second cohort of phase IIb study with AM-111
November 23, 2010 – Auris Medical receives IND approval from FDA to start clinical trial with AM-101
November 19, 2010 – Auris Medical completes enrolment in first cohort of phase IIb study with AM-111
August 31, 2010 – Otoprotective effect of AM-111 also shown in cochlear ischemia
June 9, 2010 – Oliver Kubli joins Auris Medical’s Board of Directors
December 30, 2009 – AM-111 prevents hearing loss from semicircular canal injury in otitis media
March 13, 2009 – Auris Medical initiating phase IIb clinical trial with AM-101
January 20, 2009 – Auris Medical initiating phase IIb clinical trial with AM-111
September 25, 2008 – Auris Medical to present at RNID's Sensory Impairment Conference
August 21, 2008 – Auris Medical reporting results of phase I/II clinical trial with AM-101
February 15, 2008 – Auris Medical completes series B financing round
January 30, 2008 – Auris Medical completing enrolment in phase I/II clinical trial with AM-101
January 13, 2008 – New published data show otoprotective effect of AM-111 in case of inner ear inflammatory responses (acute labyrinthitis)
February 22, 2007 – Auris Medical initiating phase I/II clinical trial with AM-101
February 19, 2007 – New research data suggesting otoprotective effect of AM-111 also in acute labyrinthitis
June 21, 2006 – Auris Medical reporting results of a phase I/II clinical trial with AM-111
April 13, 2006 – Auris Medical’s AM-111 obtains FDA orphan drug designation for the treatment of acute sensorineural hearing loss
February 2, 2006 – Auris presented as innovative young small enterprise in leading French business magazine
January 9, 2006 – Auris Medical initiating first clinical trial with AM-111
October 14, 2005 – Auris Medical presenting new data on AM-111’s otoprotective efficacy
June 23, 2005 – Auris Medical’s AM-111 obtains orphan drug designation for the treatment of acute sensorineural hearing loss in the European Union
February 21, 2005 – New data confirms strong otoprotective effect of Auris Medical’s AM-111
December 15, 2004 – Auris and Institute for Neuroscience of Montpellier receive award
April 8, 2004 – Auris Medical and Institute for Neuroscience of Montpellier enter into collaboration agreement
February 4, 2004 – Xigen and Auris Medical enter into collaboration and license agreement
January 20, 2004 – Philipp Mekler joins Auris Medical’s Board of Directors
Tinnitus and hearing loss may severely reduce the quality of life and health of affected persons. We have been hearing and reading many very touching stories from people who are experiencing severe inner ear disorders and who are encouraging us in our endeavours. While, unfortunately, we cannot provide immediate relief to them as our therapies are still under development, their messages reinforce our determination and motivation.
D. F., France
"I have been suffering from tinnitus since 1993 as a result of a very loud concert. Your work is being followed with the highest attention by thousands, yet hundreds of thousands, if not millions of people affected by tinnitus, since it represents their only real hope. ... There is not one single day, not one hour, not even a minute of relief, my tinnitus reminds me incessantly of its presence, in full awareness, and this is everyday’s fate of all the innumerable people who are suffering from it.”
F. W., Germany
“After four and a half years of complete or partial relief, my tinnitus came back, putting an enomous burden on me. I have real troubles falling asleep etc. The tinnitus is an unbearable pain, ... I’m longing for getting back a life that is worth living.”
P.M. P., France
“I am hard of hearing and have been suffering from tinnitus since many years. ... I’d like to communicate to you that what you’re doing is of extraordinary importance for all those who are in my situation, since in that way we’re keeping up the hope that our tinnitus will cease one day.”
L. M., Sweden
“I have been suffering from tinnitus since I was 20. It began with an ear infection and a mild tinnitus and stayed that way for more than 10 years. When I went to a pub with my friends lately, the noise level was ok when we arrived, but rised as more people arrived. I plugged in my new ear protection, but did not notice that the plug in my bad ear got broken during the evening.
Now I’ve got a terrible tinnitus in my bad ear... Now, the noise level is so loud that I can not work, think or do anything. ... I am willing to try nearly everything to get some part of my sense back.”
R. J., USA
“There are so many, many people who eagerly await a true, genuine, effective treatment for the scourge of tinnitus. Good luck!”
R. V., France
“I’ve learned from your work by reading a report in the periodical of France Acouphènes, the French tinnitus association. I’m suffering terribly from tinnitus and I would like to thank you for what you are doing for us.”
A. K., Israel
“I have been suffering from sudden nerve deafness and tinnitus in my right ear for close to 20 years. I could write a book on my life BEFORE and AFTER tinnitus, ... I have been dreaming and hoping for the past 20 years that someone will find a real and effective cure for tinnitus... Keep up your good work for the sake of mankind.”
Auris Medical is currently developing two drugs:
AM-101 for the treatment of one of the most frequent types of tinnitus (excitotoxicity in the cochlea e.g. from noise trauma, long noise exposure, vascularisation problems, certain ototoxic drugs etc.)
AM-111 for the treatment of acute sensorineural hearing loss from acute acoustic trauma, sudden deafness or in middle and inner ear surgery
Beside AM-101 and AM-111, Auris Medical is engaged in several other research and development projects, for which no details can be disclosed at this time.
Treatment of inner ear tinnitus
A large number of tinnitus cases may be due to single or repeated incidents of excitotoxicity in the cochlea, which can be provoked e.g. by exposure to excessive noise, fluctuations in the blood supply to the cochlea or certain ototoxic medications.
Excitotoxicity leads through the excessive release of the neurotransmitter glutamate to neural degeneration, which may in turn lead to tinnitus.
While the exact mechanisms responsible for the appearance of tinnitus following excitotoxicity remain to be elucidated, it seems highly likely that some dysregulation of cochlear NMDA receptors lies at the heart of the problem. Accumulating evidence suggests that the “phantom sound” is generated by dysregulated NMDA receptors which produce aberrant firing of the auditory nerve.
Frequently asked questions
How does AM-101 work?
AM-101 is a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors which blocks the unwanted activity of NMDA receptors in the cochlea. According to our hypothesis, this can suppress the aberrant excitation of the auditory nerve that is perceived as tinnitus.
For which types of tinnitus could AM-101 work?
Animal studies with AM-101 were performed in a model of tinnitus induced by acoustic trauma, a condition known to trigger glutamate excitotoxicity in the inner ear.
While it does not seem unlikely that AM-101 could also work in case of tinnitus provoked by other triggers of excitotoxicity, we do not know whether this holds true at this point.
Preliminary results from a phase IIb study in humans demonstrated a dose-dependent improvement in various measures of tinnitus impairment, disability and handicap. Patients suffering from acute tinnitus with established cochlear origin who received AM-101 at 0.81 mg/ml showed a statistically significant reduction in tinnitus loudness, sleep impact and the THI-12 questionnaire score (p <0.05 or <0.01).
Further information on the clinical trial and detailed outcomes shall be published in a scientific journal.
Would AM-101 work only in acute tinnitus?
The animal studies with AM-101 were performed in a model of acute acoustic trauma with treatment shortly after tinnitus onset. At this point it is unknown whether there is a therapeutic window during which AM-101 is effective, and if yes, how long such window could last.
It seems likely that after some time centralization of tinnitus sets in (i.e. the brain "memorizes" the phantom sound), and a pharmacological treatment of tinnitus in the inner ear may no longer be possible.
This question is the subject of much scientific discussion. In general, brain plasticity tends to be more rapid in the type of animals tested than in humans.
How is AM-101 administered?
AM-101 is administered by intratympanic injection, a slightly invasive and safe procedure that has been known and practiced by ENT doctors for several decades. For the injection, the eardrum is first locally anaesthetized, then slightly perforated with a fine needle through which the drug is administered into the middle ear. During the procedure and for 30 minutes thereafter, patients are lying with their treated ear up.
This shall allow for maximum contact of the drug product with the round window membrane - it is throgh this very small membrane that AM-101 then diffuses into the inner ear and reaches its target.
After the resting period, patients get up and can go home.
How safe is AM-101?
Preclinical tests in animals as well as the phase I/II clinical trial showed a good safety profile and local tolerance.
In particular no effect on hearing or balance was observed. Thanks to local administration of the drug, only tiny amounts need to be administered.
When could AM-101 be available?
Like any other investigational drug, AM-101 first has to go through a certain number of clinical trials in order to thoroughly evaluate its safety and efficacy - in accordance with applicable regulations and laws. This process, involving an increasing number of participants at each subsequent study, is taking several years and a precondition for submitting a request for marketing approval.
AM-101 will therefore even in the best case not be on the market shortly. It is also important to note that all drug development projects carry a substantial risk of failure, i.e. a great number of investigational products never make it to the market due to unacceptable side effects, lack of efficacy or other reasons. Therefore, market approval and general availability of AM-101 are not certain at this point.
How could I participate in a clinical trial with AM-101?
We are aware that many people are suffering very badly from their tinnitus and are eager to try out AM-101 by participating in a clinical trial. In fact, we are receiving quite many of such inquiries or requests.
Please check first on our website whether a clinical trial is currently open for recruitment or not. In addition, a certain number of well-defined inclusion criteria have to be met for enrolment, while none of the various exclusion criteria are fulfilled.
Quite often, interested tinnitus patients are offering to travel very far in order to participate in a clinical trial.
However, study documents may not be written in their mother tongue, which excludes them from participation - it is very important and mandatory that all study participants can read and fully understand the information provided by the clinical investigators and that they can express themselves to the investigators.
In no case can Auris Medical make any promises regarding the participation in a clinical trial with AM-101 to anyone who is contacting us for this purpose.
Thank you for your understanding.
Treatment of acute sensorineural hearing loss
Acute sensorineural hearing loss from cochlear injury such as exposure to excessive noise (acute acoustic trauma), vascular compromise, bacterial or viral infections of the cochlea (origins of sudden deafness), or middle or inner ear surgery may become permanent when left untreated.
Usually, there is some spontaneous recovery of hearing in the days and weeks following the injury thanks to cochlear repair mechanisms.
However, this recovery may be only partial, depending on the type and degree of injury. In these cases, an irreversible hearing loss remains, equivalent to a life-long handicap.
While ever-more performing hearing aids do provide important relief to people with a hearing loss, they can certainly not restore normal cochlear function and hearing, as destroyed hair cells and neurons of the cochlea won't come back.
AM-111 is a cell-permeable peptide that selectively blocks certain destructive processes in the cochlea.
If applied within a therapeutic window after e.g. some type of the aforementioned hearing injuries, AM-111 can block JNK MAPK mediated apoptosis (i.e. the programmed cell death) of hair cells and cochlear neurons, which would otherwise be lost forever.
This allows to prevent permanent hearing loss and to preserve the precious "auditory capital" at least partially, if not entirely. AM-111’s otoprotective properties have been extensively tested and confirmed in various animal models so far, including acute acoustic trauma, surgery induced acoustic trauma (cochlear implant electrode insertion) and aminoglycoside ototoxicity.
AM-111’s safety has been tested in humans in early 2006 in Germany with a total of 11 patients suffering from acute acoustic trauma (AAT) due to New Year’s firecracker accidents with a hearing loss of at least 30 dB.
Study participants received a single dose of AM-111 at either 2 mg/ml or 0.4 mg/ml in a 250 microlitre gel formulation by transtympanic injection into the most affected ear.
Overall, AM-111 was well tolerated by all study participants, independently of the dose. Adverse events occurred in only small numbers and were either unrelated or considered unlikely related to the treatment.
Regarding AM-111’s efficacy in hearing protecting following ASNHL, the clinical trial provided some first indications of a therapeutic effect of the drug.
A phase IIb clinical trial is currently ongoing in 3 European countries. The study is enrolling patients suffering from acute sensorineural hearing loss either from acute acoustic trauma or idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Trial completion is expected for 2012.
Publications relating to Auris Medical's compounds
Muehlmeier G, Biesinger E, Maier H (2011): Safety of intratympanic injection of AM-101 in patients with acute inner ear tinnitus, Audiology & Neurotology 16, 388-397.
Grindal TC, Sampson EM, Antonelli PJ (2010): AM-111 prevents hearing loss from semicircular canal injury in otitis media, Laryngoscope 120, 178-182.
Barkdull GC, Hondarrague Y, Meyer T, Harris JP, Keithley EM (2007): AM-111 reduces hearing loss in a guinea pig model of acute labyrinthitis, Laryngoscope 117, 2174-2182.
Suckfuell M, Canis M, Strieth S, Scherer H, Haisch A (2007): Intratympanic treatment of acute acoustic trauma with a cell-permeable JNK ligand: a prospective randomized phase I/II study, Acta Oto-Laryngologica 127(9), 938-942.
Wang J, Ruel J, Ladrech S, Bonny C, Van de Water TR, Puel JL (2007): Inhibition of the JNK-mediated mitochondrial cell death pathway restores auditory function in sound exposed animals, Molecular Pharmacology 71(3), 654-666.
Eshraghi AA, Wang J, Adil E, He J, Zine A, Bublik M, Bonny C, Puel JL, Balkany TJ, Van De Water TR (2007): Blocking c-Jun-N-terminal kinase signaling can prevent hearing loss induced by both electrode insertion trauma and neomycin ototoxicity, Hearing Research 226(1-2), 168-177.
Eshraghi AA, He J, Mou CH, Polak M, Zine A, Bonny C, Balkany TJ, Van de Water TR (2006): D-JNKI-1 treatment prevents the progression of hearing loss in a model of cochlear implantation trauma, Otology & Neurotology 27(4), 504-511.
Coleman JK, Littlesunday C, Jackson R, Meyer T (2007): AM-111 protects against permanent hearing loss from acute acoustic trauma, Hearing Research 226, 70-78.
Zine A, Van de Water TR (2004): The MAPK/JNK signalling pathway offers potential therapeutic targets for the prevention of acquired deafness, Current Drug Targets CNS and Neurological Disorders 3(4), 325-332.
Wang J, Ladrech S, Pujol R, Brabet P, Van De Water TR, Puel JL (2004): Caspase inhibitor, but not a c-Jun kinase peptide inhibitor, can prevent cisplatin-induced hearing loss, Cancer Research 64, 9217-9224.
Van De Water TR, Zine A, Eshraghi AA, Mou CH, Wang J, Puel JL, Balkany TJ (2004): Inhibition of the MAPK/JNK signal cascade protects hearing and auditory sensory cells against ototoxins and sound trauma: can it conserve residual hearing during cochlear implantation?, International Congress Series 1273, 72-75.
Wang J, Van De Water TR, Bonny C, Ribaupierre F, Puel JL, Zine A (2003): A peptide inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (D-JNKI-1) protects against both aminoglycoside and acoustic trauma-induced auditory hair cell death and hearing loss, J. Neuroscience 23, 8596-8607.
Auris Medical AG
Phone +41 (0)61 201 13 50
Fax +41 (0)61 201 13 51
Auris Medical Inc.
444 North Michigan Ave, Suite 1200
Chicago, IL 60611
Phone +1 312 283 5633
Fax +1 312 283 5005
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Third party sources
"Child with tin can": Corbis; all other pictures except waves, book, cochlear implant as well as portraits: Imagepoint
Picture cochlear implant: courtesy of Med-El, AT-Innsbruck
Hearing loss sample: courtesy of SUVA, CH-Lucerne
Tinnitus sample: courtesy of the foundation for casualty prevention of Winterthur Group, CH-Winterthur